These concepts are similar in the sense that they require multiple robots that communicate/cooperate. Apart from that, their application, and thus their design and implementation differ.
Swarm robots are designed after ants, bees and such creatures. The idea therefore is not just about multiple robots cooperating, but it's about many robots, ...
A robot swarm is defined by its behaviour, rather than the number of robots it contains. Swarm robots:
"... are coordinated in a distributed and decentralised way"
[Iñaki Navarro and Fernando Matía: An Introduction to Swarm Robotics, 2012]
The key feature of swarm behaviour is self-organisation, i.e. the emergence of a global, complex pattern of ...
Honestly it depends what you want, I will cover some options from cheapest to most expensive
Ultrasonic sensor on a servo 5-50$ depending on the model. It can be fairly accurate with around 1cm accurcy and 255 steps on a full circle, but it can have poor performance in dusty environments and can have poor results with curved items.
Ir distance sensor, 10-...
Let's say your environment is a weighted graph. The weight of each edge shows the distance. Edges ($E$) could be roads and nodes ($V$) could be junctions. Let's further assume that each robot has velocity $v$.
You say each "point" needs to be surveyed every $h$ hours. I assume that means each point in the city, which means each point in every road and ...
The low distance between the top of the robot and the ceiling really restricts your options. It seems pretty much impossible to get a centralised overview of the whole room and work from there.
I'm not sure what kind of 'room' you are talking about and how much you can instrument it, but it might be an option to place markers on the ceiling rather than the ...
Some ideas off the top of my head... Generally you can either have each robot sense it's own position or have some sort of system find the robots and send them information about their position (or a combination). Possibly using other robot positions to locate yourself is another option if they can communicate. You could also combine sensor information ...
If the ceiling is a flat surface that is visible from the tops of the robots, you could place marker stripes (or some other known fiducial pattern) on the ceiling at regular intervals. The stripes might be white or black lines or narrow reflective tape, detected using photosensors on top of robots.
If wheel position sensors and accurate wheel control are ...
If a vicon system is out of the question, then you can use a system of calibrated cameras to read markers placed on top of the robots.
Place the best cameras you can get around the environment. I use $20 web cams from amazon.com
Use OpenCV's calibration tools to calibrate the cameras.
Place markers on top of the robots
The cameras know their relative ...
I guess after optic (direct-line of sight) solutions, triangulation via sonic/radio frequency seems to be a possible solution.
A factor that needs to be decided is how the triangulation will be achieved. Will your transmitters be stationary, or will your receivers be stationary. In other words, will you synchronize your transmitters or your receivers.
In addition to @Shahbaz
According to this book
Multiple Mobile Robot Systems is main topic and swarm robotics is a sub topic
both of them motivated from
the task complexity is too high for a single robot to accomplish
the task is inherently distributed
building several resource-bounded robots is much easier than having a single powerful robot
This isn't something that can just be answered. There are numerous ways to do this.
You can go low tech with IR emitters and retroflective tape (or retroflectors) with IR sensors.
A more high-tech solution would be to utilize ultra-wide band transceivers. With UWB you can pinpoint your rovers in 3 dimensional space around each other.
The idea is very interesting, and I wish you good luck implementing it.
However, it is not (very) simple to implement. Some reasons:
GPS is not at all accurate;
smartphones usually have a positioning error of +- 10 meters (30 feet). Unless your boats are actually some transatlantic beasts, this error is unacceptable;
GPS receivers with (very) high ...
The ARGoS simulator specifically targets swarm robotics development. There is also a really awesome swarm robotics programming language, Buzz, that plugs into ARGoS. There is even a ROSBuzz version. Lastly, I recently discovered this fantastic repo named TensorSwarm for reinforcement learning of robot swarms that plugs into ARGoS.
Any general purpose robot simulator like V-REP or Webots can get your task done, though with not the best support for swarm robots in particular. ARGoS is a good platform for swarm robot simulation, maintained well enough with active contributors and shall allow you to inherently have support for centralized/de-centralized control.
The most common swarm ...
It's important to separate between simulation and artificial intelligence. An environment for simulating hundreds of robots on the screen is called a game engine. It can be realized with standard programming languages for example Python/pygame. The user creates an array of objects and each objects has a position and a speed value. The graphics engine ...
You are totally right, the speed of the drones is ridiculous when compared to the speed of light, thus the relativistic doppler effect is totally neglegible. Nevertheless, you may encounter communication problems due to the distance at which they are operating, which causes signal degradation, and due to interference, which may be relevant with the high ...
One way for a robot to determine if the light detected by a photodiode is from another robot, or from itself reflected off an obstacle, is to blink the LEDs in a pattern.
A blink detected by a robot when all of its own LEDs are turned off must have come from some other robot.
There are ways of designing a set of blink patterns, encoding a unique ID number ...
I would recommend using the XBee protocol to develop a point to point communication unit. What you need is an xbee adapter - which contains both a transmitter and a receiver. You can transmit data serially between the two robots which allows you to send the position of each robot. The implementation details (error checking, parity codes, parsing) are ...
It seems that RF positioning is the only technology capable of giving you the precision that you need. That said, I don't think it's ready for 5mm ranges just yet.
50 quadcopters, 20Hz, 5-15cm precision
Development of experimental TDOA system test-bed for indoor applications
Hybrid TDOA/AOA Indoor Positioning and Tracking Using Extended Kalman Filters