Once you have a map, you need to use a planning algorithm to get the robot from point A to point B. I'd reccomend reading up on RRT algorithm.
How to go from point A to point B is mostly independent of how you calculate the map and how you position yourself in the map.
It really depends on your robot kinematics (where is the location of the wheels in the robot frame and what type of wheels it have). There are a lot of resources online to get it from the configuration you have or you can even calculate it yourself. Since you got experience with diff drive then you know that you need to compute something like this for the ...
It is always guaranteed to be positive semi definite.
That being said you have to somewhat deliberately set up your system to be that way. So essentially yes it is always positive definite.
Covariance matrix by definition is always positive semidefinite.
$A^TA$ is always positive semidefinite (Takes care of the propagation matrix and the ...
The simplest method line following robots use is 3 sensor system:
Consider the 2 block sensors, let's assume they sense color. The middle one senses white, the remaining two senses grey. This robot follows the white line in the image.