10

No, that's the definition of "robotic paradigm", which is basically a class of paradigms for designing complex robots. The definition of "robot", in this context, is: A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry. or A machine capable of ...


9

As @Shahbaz points out this is a highly philosophical question though it does get to the core of the field of robotics. Dr. John Hollerbach begins his Intro to Robotics notes as follows: What is a robot? In 1980, the Robot Institute of America (RIA), an industrial trade group, came up with the following definition: "A robot is a reprogrammable ...


9

First, we need to define optimal. Since you do not say what you consider optimal, most people choose a quadratic expression. For example, suppose your current joint angles are given by the vector $\vec{\alpha}$. We can consider minimizing the movement required - with an error $\vec{x} = \vec{\alpha} - \vec{\alpha}_{start}$, you can define a cost function $J=\...


7

Kiva uses a multi-agent system to control its fleet of robots and movable shells. Their website provides a high-level overview of their system architecture and there's also a presentation online that goes into more detail. The A* algorithm is used for wayfinding and a heuristic algorithm decides on the order of things to pick up (travelling salesman problem) ...


6

That's not obvious. If I'm in a tank, going 0.5 km/h, I don't need to slow down at all. If I'm in a bobsled going 100km/h and the track banks, I don't need to slow down at all. When you steer, you begin to move around a circle with a particular radius of curvature. This means you also begin to experience centrifugal force. $$ F_c = mv^2/r $$ where $F_c$ ...


5

Not by merely looking at Jacobian but by looking at the Singular Value Decomposition of the Jacobian, one can see the degrees of freedom that are lost, if lost. Of course it technically somehow turns up to finding the null space but yet I guess it is somewhat familiar and easier. For example let the Jacobian be: $$J = \begin{bmatrix} -50 &...


5

In the industrial world, robots have a clear definition to differentiate them from other industrial machines: Industrial robot as defined by ISO 8373: An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. ...


5

You asked two (root) questions: Question: What is the difference between a Robot and a Machine? and Question: At what point does a machine begin to be called a robot? If I may, allow me to present the following text to address the first question: The six classical simple machines Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simple_machine Lever Wheel and ...


4

Whether a single 3-way, 2-position pneumatic valve (typically with a work port, an input port, and an exhaust port ‒ see page 3 of nationalpneumatic.com's pdf about valves) will suffice depends on information not given in the question. For example, if you can turn the compressor on or off at will, and if it will hold pressure when off, you can attach the ...


4

Use RoboAnalyzer. It will help you understand what you need.


4

TL;DR CNC routers move the tool while CNC mills move the workpiece, but this is a matter of common usage and not based on hard definitions. A router (in the woodworking sense) is just a rotary tool with a cutting bit. Woodworkers consider them a very universal tool, because they can be mounted into shop-made fixtures to create a wide range of other tools. ...


4

Industrial Robots with having as aim manipulation of large objects are powered electrically in almost all cases (30-40 years ago there have been popular hydraulic variants). Industrial robots are powered by industrial 400V 3 phase current, so in a sense, they are plugged in a wall outlet, but but a household wall outlet but an industrial one, like this. ...


4

The function you are looking is called online change (e.g. Beckhoff Online Change), at least by some PLC Manufacturers. If you change a few blocks (in case of FBD) or a few contacts (in case of LAD) or a few lines of code (in case of IL or ST) you can do it online by most major PLC manufacturers. (Siemens, Beckhoff and the Codesys world has this ...


4

If you only consider the simple physics of the problem you are completely right, it should be able to move lower payloads at lower velocities and accelerations. However, the maximum payload can only be used as a rule of thumb to dimension a robot. In order to do a proper dimensioning you need the center of gravity, the mass and the inertia of the payload. ...


3

You need to find the null space, not just look for zero rows or full columns. And I don't mean the null space of any particular jacobian, I mean the analytic space of all singular configurations, given the closed-form Jacobian. Usually this occurs because of a gimbal lock (as opposed to just an unreachable state space) Doing this in closed form is very, ...


3

When I was contributing to the Robot Wikipedia article, this was a question I spent a long time struggling with. What could you possibly write in the first sentence to basically define 'robot'. I spent days searching for people's personal definitions of robot, and reading forum discussions, until I found the 'agent' definition, and I realised this was the ...


3

The problem is, there is no set standard definition on what a robot is. In our perspective, a robot should be like "Honda's ASIMO." Which is not the case. It is much more complex. Robots can be controlled by humans and not controlled by humans, either definition is perfectly acceptable.


3

There are many possible ways to approach this problem, and they all depend on the material available and the expertise of the robot builder. In short, the criteria is that: The robot must get from point A to B following a pre-defined path. The path taken must not follow a line visible to the human eye. Depending on the length of the path, using encoders ...


3

I'm not sure what the "standard techniques" are but here are a few a ideas. You could combine a standard jacobian based forward kinematics as your base and then apply a gradient search algorithm where you bias against things such as running out of slack on your wires or other constraints. Let me go into a bit more detail. Generally you would just give the ...


3

We find this recent paper by Andrea Del Prete, Nicolas Mansard, Oscar Efrain Ramos Ponce, Olivier Stasse, Francesco Nori quite interesting: Implementing Torque Control with High-Ratio Gear Boxes and without Joint-Torque Sensors The authors presented a framework for implementing joint-torque control on position controlled robots.


3

They are two different ways of getting the same thing. Correctly set D-H parameters will give the exact same kinematics and dynamics as correctly set POE parameters. There are well-defined (although tedious) ways to convert between the two. So "better" or not purely is up to user preference. Some people prefer D-H because for many setups they give a unique ...


3

For example, how does price vary with precision, speed, reach and strength? The price vary a lot, from a couple of hundreds of bucks to hundreds of thousands of dollars ( Willow Garage's the one-armrobot PR2 costs \$285,000 and The two-armed costs \$400,000 ), it goes up- as you can guess- whenever the robot arm is precise, fast, long, strong, ...


3

On a typical CNC router, the work is stationary and the spindle-head moves in x/y/z coordinates. On a typical CNC mill, the work moves in x/y coordinates (ie, is attached to an x/y table) and the spindle-head moves in the z axis only. An example of each is shown below (photos from pdjinc.com and hylands.net):


3

Not a big fan of using head motions or type of spindle to define the difference, as there are lots of exceptions to each. Many 5-axis mills move the head in various ways beyond just Z. Datron makes CNC mills (excellent ones, BTW) that look like these CNC "Routers" but they call them "Mills". Some refer to "Gantry Style" mills as routers. The "Gantry" is ...


3

I have worked on a cartesian robot with similar requirements† as your own, and we selected direct drive synchronous linear motors for our x/y stages. In our case, both axes were around 2m in length, but magnet the tracks have the potential to be as long as you need to build them. † Less than an order of magnitude higher at $2/5ms^{-1}$ ...


3

Following a human can be relatively easy, but it depends on your requirements and your sensors on how easy this is. If you use ROS there are some available packages: people_tracker which uses a Kinect. Person-following and Detection in an Indoor Environment: combines a face and leg detector. ppl-detection also uses a Kinect. lidar-tracking: lidar used to ...


3

Your Jacobian-based approach is great for velocity control, or when the manipulator is close to the original point. But remember, the Jacobian only gives a first-order approximation to the manipulator's motion. With the highly nonlinear kinematics of manipulators, accuracy will vary throughout the workspace, and will decrease as the step size between the ...


3

Given a desired pose: $$T^{desired} = \begin{bmatrix} s_x&n_x&a_x&P_x\\ s_y&n_y&a_y&P_y\\ s_z&n_z&a_z&P_z\\ 0& 0& 0& 1 \end{bmatrix}$$ we know that this is given as follows: $$T^{desired} = {}^{0}T_{1}{}^{1}T_{2}{}^{2}T_{3}{}^{3}T_{4}{}^{4}...


3

For an industrial setting funds are not unlimited but the value of the machine to the process is known or predicted and if the benefit is greater than the cost, the funds are sought. Relationships with suppliers are built up over time. A lot of these relationships are old, passed from one team member to the next. Typically one maintains a relationship with ...


3

The Kalman filter is an optimal linear filter in the presence of Gaussian noise. It is optimal in the sense that it minimizes the mean-squared error. This means that the covariance of the estimated states will be minimized: $$ P = E\{(x_k - \hat{x}_{k|k})(x_k - \hat{x}_{k|k})^T\}. $$ As this covariance is minimized, the goal of any kind of estimation ...


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