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# Questions tagged [torque]

Torque, moment, or moment of force is the tendency of a force to rotate an object around an axis, fulcrum, or pivot.

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34 views

### How does joint torque varies wrt joint velocities in Recursive Newton Euler algorithm?

I'm currently working on solving the inverse dynamics of a 6-axis articulated robot, similar to the UR5, using the recursive Newton-Euler algorithm. I'm very confused with the results I'm getting, as ...
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1 vote
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### Issues with Torque Distribution in State-dependent Differential Riccati Equation (SDRE) Controller for 4W SSMR Trajectory Tracking

I am currently working on implementing a State-dependent Differential Riccati Equation Controller (SDRE) to track the trajectory of a 4-wheel skid steer mobile robot (SSMR), where torque serves as the ...
10 views

### What other BLDC form factors are out there and similar to Pancake style BLDCs?

What other form factors of BLDC motors are there which I should consider? I need to try to stay as compact as possible in at least one axis (like is accomplished by a pancake motor). I specifically ...
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### Small 6 Axis Force Torque Sensor

currently I need to install an suitable 6 Axis Force Torque Sensor on my Robotic arm. It has to be small beacause it will be mounted on this Robot: https://www.wlkata.com/en-de/pages/pg-mirobot-intro ...
36 views

### Active suspension with BLDC motor

I think about using BLDC motors for an active offroad-robotic suspension. I want the robotic platform to be parallel to the ground as much as possible and saw some videos where BLDC motors were used ...
99 views

### General Questions About Joint Control (Gazebo & ROS2)

There are some separate questions about the Gazebo and ROS 2. When I apply force/torque to a link about its joint in Gazebo simulation by hand, it behaves different than the one that is controlled ...
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### Choosing the right BLDC motor and gearbox

I'm having a trouble understanding how to choose the right BLDC motor and gearbox combo for my final project of engineering school. here are the knowns I have gathered so far: gearbox and motor combo ...
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90 views

### Applying raw torques to joints in Gazebo simulation

I have a 7dof arm that I want to simulate, and the experiment requires me to be able to apply torques to the 7 servomotors (actuators) in the simulation. I would like to know how I can set up "...
82 views

### How do you get the force acting from the first robot link on the second robot link knowing the forces and moments in the base of the robot?

Inverse dynamics (ID) is the concern of finding the required joint forces from a specification of the joint positions, velocities, and accelerations. In the figure bloew, the ID problem would be the ...
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### How are exoskeletons controlled?

It is my understanding that there are 3 fundamental control methods : velocity, position and torque. In exoskeletons meant to augment an healthy user's strength, a typical control method used is ...
2k views

### Will increasing voltage on brushless DC motor increase torque, if speed is kept constant?

I have a brushless DC motor that takes as input voltage 12-60V. If I want to drive the motor at a constant RPM, will increasing the voltage also increase the torque? For example, if I drive the motor ...
55 views

### Should I be using the old clutches with VEX 393 motors?

I am posting here because the "official" Vex forums don't seem to support EDR anymore :-( but anyhow... I am teaching a class and we are using VEX parts to build a simple winch, the whole ...
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### How to design a representative drive cycle based on speed, acceleration, and torque requirements?

I recently came across the topic of "drive cycle design". I would like to learn more about this as I delve into motor and RC vehicle design. Given: the RC vehicle must achieve 25mph max/...
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1 vote
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### Determine the maximum joint velocities for a PTP-Movement

Assuming an industrial robot performs a PTP movement with a speed of 100% for each joint, it often happens that the joints never reach 100% of speed because the torque limits of the actuators are ...
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1 vote
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### How to maximize top speed potential for a given motor? [closed]

I have an engineering background however I am new to motors. I am looking to understand what the options exist for maximizing the top speed a motor can produce (say for an RC vehicle) without simply ...
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### What is the type of electric motor that can lift 1.6 kg just like micro servos, but without the reduction gear?

Micro servo motors, normally the 9g type can lift 1,6kg with a reduction box made of nylon. However, I'm interested on lifting this amount of weight (1,6 kg) in a faster rate in the axis of rotation (...
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41 views

### what does free or forced torque mean in robot arm dynamics?

I'm trying to understand the dynamics (torque , velocity, etc ) of how a simple 2 DoF robotic arm rotates. I am using the RoboAnalyzer simulator 1 . It has a Inverse Dynamics setting of "Free&...
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### Understanding the readings of Force Torque sensor based on accuracy and precision

I am working with a 6-axis force-torque sensor to measure the thrust and moments of a model jet engine. I want to understand the significance of the accuracy (measurement uncertainty) and precision (...
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### Does torque affect prismatic joints in a gantry robot? If so, how can we reduce this?

I was posed a question based on my project on a gantry robot, "Cancelling torques that affect the prismatic joints can help us choose components with a lower cost which increases the cost-...
69 views

### Force sensors output when inclined

So here is the context: I am working on a motorcycle simulator. It consists of a motorcycle frame mounted on different actuators (see picture on the left). In particular, the two actuators at the ...
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1 vote
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### Q: Motor sizing for reeling application

I would like to ask for some help. My application is regulation of vertical speed of the camera, which is mounted on winding/unwinding reel. The camera follows the object (which moves vertically). The ...
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### 4-Wheeled Mobile Robot, Motor-Torque, RPM Calculation

I want the torque, rpm of every motor to be used considering certain factors, in a 4 wheeled robot as you see in the picture below. Here are the factors affecting motor specifications that I Had ...
1 vote
96 views

### How to calculate holding and operating torque at the base?

Could anyone please help me with the formula to calculate the operating torque and holding torque at the base to rotate the structure on top of it as shown in image with white arrows? Thank you in ...
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1 vote
481 views

### How to calculate operating torque and holding torque of a slew drive for a manipulator arm?

Hope you are doing good and enjoying your weekend. I have a question regarding calculation of torque and tilting moment for a slew drive. Slew drive (motorised) will be used at the base of a ...
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1 vote
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### Finding torque equation for my robotic arm

I am designing a 5 dof robotic arm, and for that I would like to find a torque equation. However, I am a little confused here: According to me the torque equation for M1 should be l2m2+l3m3+l4m4+l5m5 (...
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### Power pack and servo driver for robotic arm?

I have a robotic arm that uses about eight 7.4 volt volt high torque servos. (https://www.servocity.com/2000-series-dual-mode-servo-25-2/) I need to know what Kind of battery system I can use to power ...
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### How to choose a servo motor for solar tracking mechanism?

I design a solar tracking mechanisim. You can see the very undetailed representation in the pic. For choosing a servo motor how can I calculate the torque etc?
1 vote
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### Calculate Torques & Forces From Jacobian Matrix

Dear Robotics Stack Exchange, I am trying to calculate the torques and forces for a 2DOF robot. I’m used the partial differentiation method to find the Jacobian matrix. I managed to find the ...
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### Torque required to rotate arm with mass at end

I have to calculate the required torque to rotate a point mass of 15N on the end of an 1.2m long arm which I have calculated to be 10kg in mass. The rotation must have a constant angular velocity of ...
88 views

### Do hobby servos respond to step inputs with a step in torque?

I'm designing a piston that I need to expand a few cm in <100ms to load energy into a spring-mass system with around a pound of force (as shown below). Based on power specs alone, high-end hobby ...
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1 vote
94 views

### Force-torque sensor reading when a robot is stationary

Let's say I have a robot arm with a force-torque sensor on the wrist, between the final motor and the gripper. If the arm and wrist are stationary, then what would the reading on the sensor be? I know ...
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### Quadrotor dynamics: How is torque created

I'm a software engineer and I've recently engaged into Robotics field. I've started by a course on Coursera which talks about Aerial robotics and thus quad-rotors. I'm trying to understand how quad-...
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### Can I measure torque from this motor by only measuring the current?

I am new to robotics, please forgive/correct any errors. My Project Plan I want to use a PID controlled motor in a human-interface device where I need to measure the user's exerted force on an end ...
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481 views

### What is the most accurate method to calculate Torque of 5 DOF Robotic arm

I am working for development of a 5 DOF Robotic arm , and I am confused in the Torque calculation This is a 5 Axis revolute Joints Robotic arm , where Motor for 1st axis will rotate the turning table ...
173 views

### When not to use pseudoinverse?

I know this equation: $\tau = J^T f$. In my case, the Jacobian $J$ is not square. Is it valid to use the pseudoinverse of $J^T$ to calculate end effector forces $f$ based on joint torques $\tau$? I ...
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### Calculate body speed in m/s with weight in the equation?

UPDATE: I have clarified my question for answerers to better understand what I am asking If I have a flywheel, like the one shown in this image, and I know the torque, weight distribution, and weight. ...
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### How to convert torque in oz-in into the weight it can withstand?

I am looking at servos to make a robot claw, and I want to make sure the one i am getting can turn under a specific amount of weight. The servos specify their torque in oz-in. I am not sure how to ...
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849 views

### No electric motors can handle being stalled for even short periods of time, even at low power. Is this statement true in all cases?

We were using a regular POLOLU d.c motor whose stall current is 0.36A. We want to use this motor in a robotic hand where the motor will be stalled while holding the object. We are limiting the current ...
529 views

### Determining required torque for DC motor

How to determine the required torque while choosing a DC motor? Here is a simple scenario. Think of a 4WD or 2WD vehicle. The max load the vehicle will have is 100kg. Q1. How do I determine the ...
1 vote
95 views

### Why aren't my 4x 612 RPM motors driving with only 12 lb load?

I have purchased x4 612 RPM actobotics motors. Every time I try to drive the motors on ground, the motors stall, as if the torque was too low to drive. The motor model: servocity.com model #: 638284 ...
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1 vote
231 views

### Controlling high torque servo motors with Raspberry Pi

I need to control 10 Standard Servo Motors (operating at 4.8-7V/300mA-1A/2.5kg-5kg torque) in my project. I'm using RPi as my processor and I was looking for a servo driver. I came across PCA9685 16-...
689 views

### Counterweight in arm designs

I wonder why most robotic arms use large J2 (shoulder) motors rather than counterweights. What sort of complexity do they add to the design beside increase in overall weight? In fact, rather than ...
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### Understanding KGf.CM in Camera Robotic Head Design

I am attempting to design a robotic camera head - however, I am struggling to calculate the torque (in terms of KGf.CM) I will require to rotate the Y (tilt) axis of the head. The motor I intend to ...
256 views

### How to calculate what motor I need to move weight

I'm working on a project trying to make some electric roller curtains. I can use 2 motors on this curtain, on each side to lift and pull down the curtain. Pulling down the curtain requires not as much ...
71 views

### Singular Configuration - Balanced Wrench F?

I've been asked to show that if a manipular is at a singular configuration, then the End Effector wrench can be balanced without any joint torques. I know that t = J*F where (t = torques, F= end ...
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### How is this torque value arrived?

I'm going through this person's torque calculation of a simple crane setup. the servo used has a max torque of 57oz.in: At the top, if Mservo is 34.12oz.in, how is ...
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1 vote
821 views

### Rotating a lever with a small servo

I'm trying to rotate a lever link to gently "offload" a load using a servo. Here's a drawing: Here, the red is a lever, yellow pivot and black is the load. To offload, the lever needs to be turned 90 ...
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### How to make a diff robot (2 traction wheels front and 2 castor wheels back) to go straight?

I’m developing a differential robot. My wheeled robot has two castor wheels in the back and two driven wheels in the front. The motor controller I’m using can handle two motors each with 90 cpr. Each ...
1 vote
1k views

### Sensing torque of stepper motor

I need to sense the torque of a stepper motor at any given time. I'm planning to tension a wire by using a stepper motor, and in order to keep the wire at a fixed tension I would need to know the ...
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1 vote