# Questions tagged [line-following]

A line-following robot is typically a wheeled robot with light sensor(s) beneath it. The goal of the robot is to follow along a line with a distinct color or intensity, e.g. black on white background.

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### How do I build a world for a line follower bot in gazebo?

I am just starting off in robotics with my own little pet project: a line follower using openCV. However, I have no idea how to create a world in Gazebo for the bot. I went through the official Gazebo ...
946 views

### Implementing PID on a line following bot using turtlebot

I am using ROS melodic,turtlebot 2 on Ubuntu 18.04. The idea is to create an environment consisting of lines as a path (slightly curved), and to program the turtlebot to follow the lines. Basically, a ...
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1 vote
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### Path planning using nodes

I want to run my bot over a map that has nodes and I am just stuck about how to begin the path planning, I literally searched over the internet and found so many algorithms Like A* , Dijkstra's, etc. ...
1 vote
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### Determining Orientation of a Robot Relative to a Line on Table

I am currently busy with a robot that needs to obtain it's orientation relative to a line seen by a camera. At the moment, I am using Hough lines to obtain a gradient for the line, but the gradient ...
1 vote
231 views

### How to find the optimal path for a line following maze robot?

First let me explain the problem. This is a maze made only out of black lines on a white surface. The robot has only a few IR sensors which can sense the position of the line. No other sensory input ...
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### Planar Robot Boundary Detection

I am tasked with building a robot that needs to localise and navigate itself on a rectangular surface (like a large desk). The rectangle's shorter sides will be marked with a red tape (or with two ...
31 views

### Is there a table of DC motors in relation to weight/mass? I want to find the fastest for my build

I am building a line follower robot for a science competition, i have the weight of the components but i don't know what would be the fastest motor i could use to reach the best avg speed of the robot....
107 views

### Line Following Acute and Right angles and Proportional steering help

I am trying to figure out the logic for a line follower with the path shown in the attached image. I am having trouble with <= 90 degree angle turns. So far, I have been using the logic where if ...
783 views

### IR sensor spacing in sensor array relative to line width

I'm trying to build a line follower bot that follows a 3cm wide black line. I have a line sensor array with 6 analog sensors spaced 1cm apart. This means that in an ideal situation, i.e bot going ...
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### Effects of distance between wheels on differential line following robots

I have been working on a line following robot for a line tracing competition. It has 7 IR sensors for line detection and the robot size is limited based on the competition rules. The robot structure ...
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1 vote
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### Visible light sensors for line follower

I'm making a second version of my line follower robot and I'm thinking what are the line sensors going to look like. In the previous version I've successfully used IR LEDs and IR phototransistors, ...
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1 vote
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### What are the differences between trajectory planning, trajectory tracking, path planning, path following and motion planning?

What are the differences between trajectory planning, trajectory tracking, path planning, path following and motion planning? And what are the basic methods they use?
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### Robotics flag at start of maze

Just to give u a little background of what I am doing, I am currently programming my vehicle to wall-hug a maze. My idea is that my vehicle does a check at start whether or not it will move in ...
1k views

### Line following robot mathematic model

I'm trying to improve the speed my line following robot. I have made this chassis designs. This is the main prototype I'm working on. Look at the following image. I'm driving the robot with PID, and ...
1 vote
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### Maze wall hugging both clockwise and anti-clockwise

So I did the algorithm for the vehicle to go in a clockwise direction(Refer to my pseudocodes below). But now that my school had said there will be an anti-clockwise direction as well, I'm not sure ...
1 vote
276 views

### Why won't my PID line follower work?

I'm trying to implement a PID based line follower. The robot has 2 line sensors with ranges from 0-200, with 0 being black and 200 being white. I'm trying to follow a black line. I'm struggling to ...
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### Tackling loops and discontinuations in PID line follower

We are making a PID line follower using arduino for a competition. According to the rules of the competition they will have loops and discontinuations in their track. Can anyone give some idea how we ...
1 vote
53 views

### How to keep track of (x,y) co-ordinates of a line-following bot?

I am working on a bot that follows a certain line path based on some pre-determined algorithm. I would like to know what the (x,y) co-ordinates of my bot are as it traverses with respect to some pre-...
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1 vote
284 views

### Detecting and counting the number of junctions

So I am making a robot which is to follow a line. The field has both +(junctions) as well(by the intersection of two lights). I am yet to figure out what exactly is the best way to track the number of ...
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662 views

### PID vs Fuzzy line follower

I am making a line follower to follow a white line (approx 1.7 cmm wide) on a black track. I am using an array of 5 TCRT5000 (IR led+phototransistor) to detect the line. I was previously working with ...
1 vote
2k views

### Calculating error on line following robot (PID)

I am kind of new to control systems and I am currently making a line follower using PID loop. I am using 6 IR LED Photo-transistor pairs to detect the line but I am not sure how to calculate the error....
1 vote
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### How to use PID control for line following robot?

It's me the greatest noob again.thank you very much for your last help guys.Now,this time I am with a line following robot.I want to use PID control in it.But I'm not getting any perfect resource from ...
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### What is the best way to turn in 2WD simple differential drive line following robot?

I've used 4 sensors & a standard smart robot chassis kit with geared motors & L298 motor driver. What is the difference between turning in: One wheel stopped, one wheel moves. Both wheels ...
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### Line-following robot with a 5th wheel

Both of these 4 wheel drive line following robots have a fifth wheel in the rear. My first thought is, that it is used as a braking mechanism. Would that be the case? If so, could someone explain - ...
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### Do I need to use separate function in PID algorithm to make the bot go LEFT or RIGHT?

Do I need to use separate function in PID algorithm to make the bot go LEFT or RIGHT? ...
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### Tuning Line follower PID constants with Q-learning

I am currently working on a line follower buggy and have managed to tune the PID constants​ manually. The buggy follows the line at a moderate speed. I will now like to take things further and learn ...
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1 vote
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### issues with LSA-08 line sensor for line tracing

I am using LSA-08 self calibrating sensor for line following purpose. But the problem with my sensor is it can't distinguish between faint blue color and white color (having RGB values 185, 217, 235). ...
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### Line follower robot with 2 or 4 motors?

I am developing a line follower robot and I am not sure about how many motors should I use: two or four. I'm thinking of using four, but I do not know if it's worth it (it will let the car be heavier, ...
73 views

### Could anyone complete my challenge? [closed]

Earlier while writing by hand, I was wondering if anyone could build a pen holder, that could write for me? Maybe you could make some good business from them. Thanks for your time.
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### Tuning PID controller for sharp turns in line follower robot

I'm working on a TWDD line-following robot using qtr-8a reflectance sensor array. The sensors are connected to BeagleBone Black, and BBB is sending the speed serially to an arduino Due. My approach is ...
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### Line follower for coloured lines

I am building a line-following robot with a Raspberry Pi Zero, using the explorer PHat. The robot is supposed to follow black, red, green and blue lines and react to the colour, so it should drive ...
1 vote
3k views

### Implementing pure pursuit problem in robot navigation? [closed]

I would like to implement pure pursuit waypoints navigation. we know that, look ahead distance=look ahead gain*vehicle forward velocity How can I calculate look ahead velocity gain/look ahead gain? ...
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### How can I implement tremaux algo in arduino line follower to navigate and create map?

The Map1 The task is divided into 2 runs, In first run, We have to navigate through whole map and reach the end mark taking all checkpoints. In second run, using the mapping from first run we have to ...
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### What algorithm should I use for a line follower?

I actively take part in robotics competitions with my school's robotics club, and all of the line followers we use, are implemented using a PID algorithm (PD actually), but recently my electronics ...
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1 vote
1k views

### How to select dc motors for a line following robot?

What are the criteria to consider when ordering dc motors for a line following robot? Is there a way to calculate the torque required?
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1 vote
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### Are there any others alternatives for PID controllers for line following robots? [closed]

Are there any better/ advanced ways of steering a line following robot other than pid controller? If so what are them?
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### How to check for a sharp angle with a line follower?

I have the mBot robot and I want to program it to follow the line. So far it can pass any kind of line that is >90°. I want it to be able to pass 90°-ish angles as well. Like this one: The problem ...
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1k views

### How to make a robot arm follow a shape/path

I have constructed a 3 DOF robot arm. I want it to follow a trajectory on a 2D plane (XY). Tha shapes I want to follow are lines, cycles and splines. I now the math behind these 3 shaped (how they are ...
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2k views

### Typical Problem in Simple Line Follower Using 3 sensors

I am working on building a line follower robot using ATmega2560 and I want its movement to be more precise. I am facing a very typical problem. It consists of three(3) IR sensors. The thickness of the ...
1 vote
652 views

### Color sensor alternatives [closed]

I am making a white line follower. I am using an IR sensor module based on TCRT5000. I am directly taking the 8bit ADC reading from Arduino Uno and printing the values on serial monitor. I observe ...
3k views

### Length and Width of a Line Following Robot

I'm building a line following robot. I have made different chassis designs. The main prototype I'm using is a rectangle base. At one side motors are placed. On the other side of the rectangle caster ...
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### How to drive robot without driving actuator? [duplicate]

I am participating in a robotics competition. I am supposed to design and build two robots. Out of these, one cannot have a driving actuator (it can have a steering actuator though, fed by a line ...
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2k views

### Advanced Line Following Robot of Maze Solving

I know how to make a line follower. But in this video what have they done exactly? They are giving the source and destination in the map but how the robot moves based on the instruction given in map? ...
2k views

### Robot wire follower + how to position on wire

I'm designing my lawn mower robot, and I am in the perimeter stage. The electronic part is done, and works quite good, now comes the software. I need an advice on how to deal with the problem of ...
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### Optimal-time acceleration sequence of a line-following robot following a moving obstacle

Say we have a line-following robot that has a moving obstacle in front, that is a one-dimensional problem. The moving obstacle is defined by its initial state and a sequence of (longitudinal) ...
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### Tuning PD for line follower

I am trying to make line following robot. I am using atmega328p mcu, pololu 10:1 motors, pololu qtr6-rc sensor, 2s li-po. Here is my code: ...
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### How would I implement a following drone with a camera using GPS?

As the title states, is there any way to make a following drone that tracks a GPS unit, and follows/orients camera to that? Similar to this
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### Is there a brushless motor controller accepting over 500 updates/s?

I want to use brushless for my line follower. The problem is most ESCs don't accept more than 400-500 updates/s due to the characteristic of steering signal. Is there a way to overcome this with a ...
668 views

### Linear State space model for mobile robot

How can I write a linear state space model for a 4 wheel mobile robot with Ackerman steering in terms of error. I want the robot to follow a line. The robot is rear wheel drive
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