Question: A PID controller has three parameters Kp, Ki and Kd which could affect the output performance. A differential driving robot is controlled by a PID controller. The heading information is sensed by a compass sensor. The moving forward speed is kept constant. The PID controller is able to control the heading information to follow a given direction. Explain the outcome on the differential driving robot performance when the three parameters are increased individually.
This is a question that has come up in a past paper but most likely won't show up this year but it still worries me. It's the only question that has me thinking for quite some time. I'd love an answer in simple terms. Most stuff i've read on the internet don't make much sense to me as it goes heavy into the detail and off topic for my case.
My take on this:
I know that the proportional term, Kp, is entirely based on the error and that, let's say, double the error would mean doubling Kp (applying proportional force). This therefore implies that increasing Kp is a result of the robot heading in the wrong direction so Kp is increased to ensure the robot goes on the right direction or at least tries to reduce the error as time passes so an increase in Kp would affect the robot in such a way to adjust the heading of the robot so it stays on the right path.
The derivative term, Kd, is based on the rate of change of the error so an increase in Kd implies that the rate of change of error has increased over time so double the error would result in double the force. An increase by double the change in the robot's heading would take place if the robot's heading is doubled in error from the previous feedback result. Kd causes the robot to react faster as the error increases.
An increase in the integral term, Ki, means that the error is increased over time. The integral accounts for the sum of error over time. Even a small increase in the error would increase the integral so the robot would have to head in the right direction for an equal amount of time for the integral to balance to zero.
I would appreciate a much better answer and it would be great to be confident for a similar upcoming question in the finals.