I'm not aware of any technical name for the alignment of the wheels except -- literally -- "steering".
Spot turns in theory are no different than any other turn. You simply align the axis of each wheel with the radial lines coming from a single pivot point. If that point is underneath the vehicle, you will be doing a spot turn (a.k.a. point turn, a.k.a. pivot turn). If the point is not underneath the vehicle, you will be doing a regular arcing turn like you'd do in a car or bicycle or similar.
Even if not all the wheels have adjustable angles, you're still orienting all the wheels to the same point.