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There are many resources that relate to EKFSLAM based on the presence of only a LiDAR unit, which localize both the vehicle and the detected landmarks.

I see that they often use state vectors that get augmented as new unique landmarks are detected, in the form of:

\begin{pmatrix} x_{vehicle} \\ y_{vehicle} \\ \theta_{vehicle} \\ x_{landmark1} \\ y_{landmark1} \\ \vdots \end{pmatrix}

My current setup allows me to use an IMU+GPS as well.

The IMU+GPS module already localizes the position of the vehicle, but I am struggling with localizing the landmarks (which I need to do in order to create a map). I would like to make use of this module that is already available to me as it enables more precise localization of the vehicle.

I was considering taking the localizations of the IMU+GPS as an input, but I had trouble coming up with the update equations, as I could not conceive of what the covariance matrix would look like.

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