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I am pretty new to robotics and I am prototyping my own custom design of a robot with different types of joints controlled by ROS.

I have a custom joint activated by a DC motor and direct drive gears with limited motion range (minimum and maximum positions are reached by rotation and each direction).

What sensors (or mechanical stops) can be used to detect the ending positions of the motion?

I understand that servo motor will be the best choice - but the force I need is pretty high.

Thank you

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To know when a joint has reached a limit you usually use what are known as limit switches. There are lots of different technologies which are used for this. The simplest are mechanical switches but non contact optical ones are common as they are less prone to wear out over time.

You can also use an physical endstop and detect higher torque in the motor, but that's ambiguous in case of the device begging blocked by something else. Or you can use a pressure sensor on the endstop but that's usually more expensive.

There's lots of options and it's really about finding the best one for your application.

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