AFAIK, localization is used to determine a robot's pose from a given a map and sensor data. I know of statistical localization approaches which use particle filters to determine a robot's location within a map.
But doesn't odometry also do the same thing using a different technique? That is, it just uses sensor data to estimate the position (and velocity) of a robot using geometric methods instead of statistical methods?
In other words, aren't both odometry and localization determining the pose of the robot? Is the difference that odometry doesn't need a map, but localization does?