Given a 12' x 12' field (4m x 4m), a reasonably cheap 3-axis gyro sensor and accelerometer, and compass, I plan to design a device capable of tracking its position to sub-centimeter accuracy for a minute of motion or so.
The device has a holonomic drive system, capable of moving any direction at a maximum of about 8mph (3.6m/s), with a maximum acceleration of about 2g's. However, there are some simplifying constraints. For one, the field is nearly flat. The floor is made of a tough foam, so there is slight sinking, but the floor is flat except for a ramp of known angle (to a few degrees). The device will, excepting collisions, not be rising above the floor.
Accuracy is preferred over simplicity, so any mathematics required on the software side to improve the system would be welcomed.
Before I definitively choose accelerometers as the method of position tracking, though, I would like some idea of how much accuracy I could get, and the best ways of doing it.