"All I need to do".... Famous last words. This is a very complicated project to attempt for multiple reasons. I'll try to break down these challenges. For documentation, the datasheet has all the information that you need, but there is probably not any code available that is ready to use. Sparkfun has recently introduced a 'degree of difficulty' rating for parts, and from what I can discern just using the camera is beyond your current skill level. This doesn't mean you can't do the project, but you will be learning a lot along the way :)
To break this project down, you have a few challenges. First, you have a I2C control interface, and a parallel data output. There are a few other pins, such as the various power supplies required and the CLK, Hsync, and Vsync pins. The I/O connections aren't too complicated, but there are two different power supply domains (1.5V and 2.8V that you need in addition to your Arduino supply.
Once you have the circuit connected electrically, then you need to implement the camera control codes. This will allow you to at least set the resolution and FPS on the camera, and probably control when the camera captures images.
Then you need to transfer the image data from the camera to your microcontroller. This is done as parallel data transferred one byte at a time, and the entire sensor is row/column scanned to output the image as raw data. This means that you need at least as much RAM as the resolution of the image you are receiving. Also, the minimum transfer rate listed in the datasheet is basically 12 MBytes / sec, which is probably difficult to implement with a regular Arduino. The RAM required per frame ranges from 7MByte for full resolution, down to
25kByte for the subQCIF resolution.
Once you have an image in memory, then you need to encode each frame into some video format because even at the lowest bitrate you will be recording 370kByte/sec as a raw data. Video encoding is probably very difficult to do on an Arduino (or without a video encoding library and/or core). Encoding will require additional RAM on the device, and will vary depending on the codec you use.
Once you have encoded the video into some format, you will need to transfer it to the SD card. Again, video takes a lot of bandwidth, and it is unlikely that an Arduino will be able to interface with a SD card in a way that will provide enough bandwidth for transferring video in real-time. (AFAIK, most Arduinos access SD cards through the SPI interface - this will be very slow compared to what you need).
All in all, there are a lot of challenges to recording video from a raw sensor. They aren't insurmountable, but they are significant.