Many computing platforms used by robots are not real time(ex Jetson).
How are real time constraints handled in real robots? Are all software transfered into a hardware solution with real time performance? How does it work?
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The answer is yes, for example many robot computers are based on the linux real-time kernels to handle the real-time constraints.
For small robots for teaching like the turtlebot uses a raspberry pi for the high-level control, and a motor control board for the real-time control.
Another example is the Ball balancing robot that uses an STM32 Nucleo board with the free RTOS kernel to handle the real-time control and communicates to the onboard computer for autonomous navigation.