Smart phones these days typically come with a gyroscope, accelerometer, compass, camera, and GPS sensor all on board. They also usually have a connection to the internet with Wifi and mobile data networks. I've seen many cases of using a phone as a remote control for a robot, but to me, it seems like the phone itself is a perfect lightweight computing and sensing platform for an autonomous robot.
The main obstacle I see is interfacing with actuators. Being able to control motors to steer even a table-top robot, or control servos, for example. Connecting and communicating to a microcontroller could be an obstacle as well.
As a robot hobbyist, I'd like to know how I can overcome these and other obstacles to be able to harness the power of my smart phone with my robotics projects.