My personal experience is in industrial automation and controls designing utility fed electrical panels. I do not have experience with industrial battery powered equipment like AGVs but maybe you can apply some of what I share below to your needs.
Typically your main power (usually AC power) is brought in and is immediately fed into a circuit protective device and/or a power disconnect (on-off switch). From there it may be filtered, further protected with fuses or circuit breakers, and subsequently fed into devices which consume power directly from the main. When control power is required (think 5, 12, 24VDC or 120VAC) the main power is fed into a DC power supply or AC control transformer. The output from these power supplies is fed into fuses for circuit protection and made available at a central distribution point. Each branch of power is individually protected with fuses or circuit breakers.
When devices outside of the control panel require power, the power is typically transmitted through the connection cable to the device at the voltage the device requires. I would say it is very rare to see power supplies or transformers at the end device.
Since your cable run is very short, I would have no issue with centrally converting power to your requirements and only sending the power you need through the cable. This simplifies the design since you only need one central supply, and it allows you to locate all your circuit protective devices together at the power supply.