Considering your apparent education background, I’m surprised at this question...
But regardless. Working with robots, when compared to making robots are very different things.
This is not so much different than driving cars and fixing them compared to designing and building them.
As you studied physics, then you’re well aware that physics is the practical application of mathematics. (In a dumbed down way)
Much is the same that engineering is the practical application of physics.
A trade and/or the use of machines would then be the practical/end use of engineering.
Learning to operate robots, as in using them safely, programming them, and to a degree fixing them, will give a person all the knowledge required for said machine usage.
This would include machine specific programming (or a commonly used language depending on the machine(s)) spacial thinking, understanding multiple coordinate systems... world, joint, camera vs world, etc etc. These are things your education would help you understand easier than someone not formally educated.
Repairing said machines will give an insight into how they may be built, and the engineering thoughts that went into them...or maybe just confuse a person why some choice was made than the obvious one....
But it's unlikely that you would ever do this...and a maintenance person would normally be found anyways, these machines are expensive after all.
Using robots will teach the differences between precision, accuracy, and repeatability in a real world application.
Learning the use of machines will provide valuable insight into them, but is quite far removed when it comes to designing them, programming them (as in programming their embedded systems, not just their movement via gcode or something ), and controlling them.
However all of this is highly dependent on what you’re operating on.
Running a cnc mill is far different than running a 8 axis industrial arm, both provide valuable knowledge, but are very different kinds of robots with many overlapping and many non-overlapping usage cases and knowledge.
I suggest looking for Fanuc, ABB, Kuka training courses to see the things they describe you would learn about, and compare them to DMG or Siemans milling courses to have an idea of the differences between them, and simply waiting to take the job and see what you learn. Hopefully you'll be running older machines that you will actually have to do something, and not just hit the start button to run a CAM program someone in an office premade for you.