I want to know how big of on an impact does the speed of the platform on which your sensors are mounted have on the quality of the outcome of a SLAM solution. Are there are any methods that are better suited to applications where the platform speed is higher ? What are the typical trade offs? Speed here refers to the actual motion of the platform and not the processing speed of computational elements.
That totally depends on the sensor type and moving speed.
Think about hand-held SLAM devices where angular velocity is typically way larger than ground vehicle types. Also, sensor type and fps are other main factors. If you use 1000 FPS global shutter camera you don't need to worry about the motion distortion much whereas 2-axises LiDARs is the opposite case.
Continuous-time SLAM is dedicated to tackle with the motion distortion.
You can see an extream case here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uj9BKcnXOyo
Refers to my paper if you want more details: https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.01691