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So I'm doing some reading on Monte Carlo Localization, and it sounds like the approach is based on using a predefined map, but I just need to make sure (because I haven't read anywhere that it absolutely needs a predefined map). I just want to make 100% sure that my understanding is correct:

Does it absolutely need a predefined map?

[maybe I need to add the below stuff as another question, but here goes nothing] And what other localization approaches are there that don't need a predefined map? So far I've only read about SLAM (which sounds to me like a general approach instead of a specific implementation).

Thanks in advance!

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Yes, as defined in literature, all localization requires a prior map.

This is because the goal of localization is to localize a robot with respect to some feature. If you don't know where the feature is, you can't know where the robot is.

If you are uncertain about the features, then you are doing Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM).

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