I got a Turtlebot, and I’m thinking of putting the RGBd camera to other places. If you move RGBD camera to other places on a robot, same orientation, create a map, does ROS AMCL still works? I am thinking since the package might have created a measurement model and motion mode of the Turtlebot for AMCL, then moving the camera around can fail the navigation stack if no transformation or adjustment made to the models?
Yes, It'll fail.
The system needs to know where the camera is in relation to the rest of the robot (e.g. it's wheels, base frame ... everything that contributes to how the robot moves in the environment).
You'll need to update the robots URDF file at the least with the new location of any sensors.