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Is their any method by using which I can find a space or gap in given point cloud which has size greater than given rectangle of size $l*b$ or a circle of radius $r$? This way my robot can make a path to that space and move towards it. Is this possible by first finding the key points than applying triangular to given key points?

I am developing a navigation algorithm for my robot, and wondering if this kind of method already exists.

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Why don't you try to look it au contraire? Given you know the robot's "radius" (a contact free sphere actually with your desired r value) you can enlarge obstacles you find, although this would require the used of some sort of discretaziation of the world in a grid. For 3D this can be done using OctoMap (https://octomap.github.io/).

With obstacles enlarged by half of the robot radius, the robot becomes a dot. The planning now can be performed using A* in the discrete grid. The A* will give a sequence of points that can be used as waypoints or can be interpolated using spline curves to impose linear and angular velocity to the robot. Dubin's path is also an option.

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