For a college student project, I am designing a quadcopter with a payload of 3-4kg.

As I am new I don't know what are the implications of such a requirement on the quadcopter design.

In particular to choose: - the motor KV - the propellers - the ESCs and battery rating

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You will need some kind of iterative design to figure out the design of your multi-rotor.

You can consider quadrotor but maybe hexa is making more sense as it will require different kinds of motors...

First, you know the payload, assume a platform weight around 2-3 kg. So you need to have motors capable of producing a total thrust around 80-100N (typically people go for a maximum thrust double of the hovering one). From there you need to find the motors and propellers capable of producing that thrust, this will give you some idea about the ESCs rating (assume worst case, every motor drawign max current). Then based on how long you want to fly you will get your baterry. Once there check the total weight of your platform with respect the initial guess, and iterate....

You can have a look at a design helper https://www.ecalc.ch/


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