The Arduino is a microcontroller and not a "full" computer. (See my other answer here.) As such, you will have a difficult time running TensorFlow on the Arduino.
Deploying TensorFlow, or another Neural Network Framework, on your robot has at least two parts:
- Training: teaching your network, best performed on a computer or server with a powerful GPU
- Deployment: loading your trained model onto your platform for realtime operation.
You would have an easier time training on a desktop computer and deploying to a robotic platform that uses a Raspberry Pi for high-level tasks and an Arduino for low-level tasks. On the Pi, you could use TensorFlow or OpenCV in either C/C++ or Python.
Depending on your objectives, you may be able to get away with using specialized camera hardware like the Pixy, which would work directly with the Arduino.