Does the robot described by Double Integrator Model is holonomic ?

Let's say we have a robot with dynamics described by equations

\begin{cases} \dot x = v, & \\ \dot v = \frac {1}{m}u \end{cases} Where, $x$ is the position of the robot, $v$ is the velocity and $u$ is robot's control input.

Can we call this robot a holonomic robot ?

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Please expand your question so it is self-contained. $\endgroup$
    – ZeroTheHero
    Commented Jul 1, 2017 at 17:25
  • $\begingroup$ Dear robotics moderators: Please merge questions. $\endgroup$
    – Qmechanic
    Commented Jul 3, 2017 at 22:29
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ Possible duplicate of Robot with Double Integrator Model $\endgroup$
    – Glorfindel
    Commented Jul 28, 2018 at 18:46

1 Answer 1


Holonomic means that the controllable degrees of freedom in a system is equal to the total degrees of freedom.

I'm guessing you might be having difficulty differentiating between states and degrees of freedom which are both simple concepts, but sometimes confused with one another.

1st comment: The [robot] system you describe has a single degree of freedom. It just translates in a single direction like forwards and backwards. But not side to side, nor does it spin. Not a very interesting robot.

2nd comment: The double integrator has two states. You can assign them as

$$x_1 = x$$ and $$x_2 =v$$ 3rd comment: The system has one input, $u$, a force

So Answer: Yes, it's holonomic. There are two states (position and velocity), but only one degree of freedom and one controllable degree of freedom (forwards and backwards).

Example of a non-holonomic system: A wheel that rolls but also 'yaws' to steer a vehicle

  • $\begingroup$ Would a differentially steered robot (two fixed wheels on either side, usually with one or more casters) be a holonomic by your definition? $\endgroup$
    – NomadMaker
    Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 10:39

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