What exactly is the difference between both the above terms? From some of the papers I realize that force closure depends on the frictional forces. Is it correct?

Suppose I to grasp a cylindrical object with my hand, which closure will it be considered?


1 Answer 1


It depends on how you grasp the object. If you grip very tightly on the cylinder with your hand and prevent it from moving in certain directions using friction then you are using a force closure. If you enclose the object so that it cannot rotate/translate then it is a form closure.

  • $\begingroup$ I assume you mean rotate about an axis other than the principal axis of the cylinder? $\endgroup$
    – Ben
    Apr 19, 2017 at 19:53
  • $\begingroup$ @Ben: Yeah, you're right. You wouldn't be able to restrict rotation of circular shapes without friction. But for a general 3d shape, enclosing it on all sides would restrict its motion by form closure. $\endgroup$
    – wyverniv
    Apr 20, 2017 at 20:05

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