Assuming it is a rigid robot, then the only weight properties of interest is:
- the total mass
- the centre of mass
In terms of tipping over, the robot is more stable if the angle required before tipping over is maximized. This is achieved by having a low centre of mass, and a centre of mass as far away from the edges of the support polygon as possible.
Intuitively, you can see that if the centre of mass is near the centre of the robot, it is more stable. More formally, if you consider each wheel to be the vertex of a polygon (from a top view), then you will see a support polygon. You can designate the centre to be the point furtherest away from an edge.
Another way to increase stability is to increase the size of the support polygon - that is, place the wheels further out to form a wide base. Adding more wheels can also increase the size of the support polygon, although this mostly impacts three wheeled robots, which have quite a small support polygon relative to the distance between the wheels.
The angle required for the robot to tip may depend on the direction of tipping. If there is movement along that direction, then disturbances are more likely in that direction. That is why cars are more stable forward/backwards, compared to sideways (roll axis), with front wheels further from the rear wheels as compared to the distance between left and right wheels.
The total mass of the robot is also a factor. If the robot is heavier, then a larger disturbing force is required to tip the robot to the required angle before it will continue to tip over. Having said that, you are unlikely to want to simply increase robot mass, so you will:
- try to place heavier components lower (batteries can be quite heavy)
- increase the size of the support polygon (wheels further out, or 4 wheels instead of 3).