Yes, ROS (or really, MoveIt) has general purpose IK plugins that can solve inverse kinematics for arbitrary geometry (both joint configuration and degrees of freedom). There are a number of plugin options for IK solvers, but I'll mention that the general purpose solvers are not analytic, closed form solutions - they are numerical approaches (e.g. the default is KDL).
There are other plugin options as well (just google "ROS Inverse Kinematics" and you should find a nice list), including some solvers that can provide analytical solutions for some geometries (but perhaps more than you might think). IKFast isn't terribly user friendly and is a bit out of date, but if you can get it working, it is undeniably fast.
Outside of the ROS realm, I also stumbled across and had some success with the IKBT project which can provide more human-friendly analytic IK solutions for surprising number of geometries when provided with DH Parameters.
Again, there are some robot geometries that are as of yet, "unsolved" in terms of a closed form IK solution. That's why general purpose numerical solvers are so prevalent and useful. So it really depends on your use case and your needs