In general, markers used to measure position visually are called fiducial markers.
Some applications have a single type of fiducial (a solid circle or a cross) repeated many times.
Some applications independently positition many unique barcode-like fiducial markers, sometimes called fiducial targets, frame markers, augmented reality marker, etc.,
such as openAR, ArUco, js-aruco, ARma, JSARToolkit, Cantag, Virtuali-Tee, Studierstube Tracker, Vuforia Frame Markers, etc.
(These applications have more complex computational requirements, because the fiducial can be at some arbitrary pitch, roll, yaw angle relative to the camera, so the software must de-skew and undo the perspective transformation. The Marker-based Augmented Reality article goes into a lot of detail).
Some linear encoders visually detect absolute linear position over long lengths along a long "tape" printed with a long series of unique barcodes,
Absolute Positioning System (APS) code tape,
RESOLUTE single track optical absolute scale,
Data Matrix Position Guided Vision (PGV) code tape,
Leuze barcode positioning system (BPS),
and the "ShaperTape" of the "Origin" from Shaper Tools in your photo.
(These applications generally have simpler computational requirements and so can run faster, because they rigidly hold the camera in a nearly fixed pitch-roll orientation and Z-position relative to the fiducial).
Some fiducual markers are specifically designed with topological region features that allow them to be quickly located and uniquely identified with 2D fiducial tracking in the 2D camera image,
even in applications that need to do full 6D fiducial tracking of the X,Y,Z position and pitch, roll, yaw orientation of the fiducial in the 3D space in front of the camera.