I remember I have read the article about ros client’s register callback and action callback design in ros document. It discusses different ways to register the callback and run callback. Also, it can use poller to get callbacks to run or use trigger to run callbacks. I want to find it.
Your description of the content that you're looking for is not really specific enough to find a specific set of documentation. You'll need to be more specific to get more than a guess.
The main things that come to mind are the executor documentation: https://docs.ros.org/en/rolling/Concepts/Intermediate/About-Executors.html
Or the actionlib tutorials: http://wiki.ros.org/actionlib_tutorials/Tutorials