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Is there a disadvantage in terms of real-time performance when using Python as opposed to C++ in ROS2? If so, how significant is this disadvantage?

Thank you.

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You're gonna hate this answer, but: "it depends", and on what you mean by "real time".

Yes, there's a disadvantage - python is slower than c++ (by a lot), and ros2's support for python is meh, and you have the GIL to contend with, and I don't think ros2's newest zero-copy stuff applies to python. But how much it impacts you depends on your usage.

For instance - are you reading from, and controlling a robot, at 1Khz in a tight loop? Then I bet you'd notice a difference in latency.

Are you doing computer vision at 20hz, and are spending all the time inside pytorch anyway? Then I bet you wouldn't notice a difference in latency.

The only way to know is to profile.

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